Three Definitions of Ideology (Raymond Williams):
Roland Barthes: Connotators form "the rhetoric of my ideology"
United States of America Scott 1082: "Labor
Marx: Base and Superstructure
Central Premise of Marxist Approach to Culture: Cultural texts and practices must be analyzed in relation to the historical conditions of their production.
Still from Film "Child Labour" (1913)
Why do we use banks?
Why do we consent to things as they are?
Hegemony (Antonio Gramsci):
The social concept describing a society in which subordinate groups and classes appear to support and subscribe to the values, ideals, objectives, cultural, economic,and political meanings which bind them to and incorporate them into the prevailing structures of power.
We come to take the values, ideas, and beliefs of the ruling class as our own, come to see them as "common-sense," "natural," and "normal," the way things are and the way they ought to be.
Hegemony implies a high degree of consensus, but this is not consensus without conflict.
Hegemony is maintained by dominant groups negotiation with and making concessions to subordinate groups.
Interpellation (Louis Althusser):
Ideological "hailing" -- the times when we are invited to and do identify with or see ourselves in the dominant order. The manner in which we are addressed by ideology, are produced as subjects of ideology.
The paradoxical negotiations of cultural hegemony.
"Meaning is a social production, a practice.The world has to be made to mean"
Charlie Chaplin "Modern Times"